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The Bacchanalia were Roman festivals of Bacchus based on various ecstatic elements of the Greek Dionysia. They seem to have been popular and well-organised throughout the central and southern Italian peninsula.

They Most Precious Blood - Merciless almost certainly associated with Rome's native cult of Liberand probably arrived in Rome itself around BC. However, like all mystery religions of the ancient world, very little is known of their rites.

Livywriting some years after the event, offers a scandalised, extremely colourful account of the Bacchanalia. Modern scholarship takes a skeptical approach to his allegations of frenzied rites, sexually violent initiations of both sexes, all ages and all social classes, and the cult as a murderous instrument of conspiracy against the state. Livy claims that seven thousand cult leaders and followers were arrested, and that most were executed.

Senatorial legislation to reform the Bacchanalia in BC attempted to control their size, organisation, and priesthoods, under threat of the death penalty. This may have been motivated less by the kind of lurid and dramatic rumours that Livy describes than by the senate's determination to assert its civil and religious authority over Rome and her allies, after the prolonged social, political and military crisis of the Second Punic War — BC.

The reformed Bacchanalia rites may have been merged with the Liberalia festival. Bacchus, Liber and Dionysus became virtually interchangeable from the late Republican era Bachus - Orgy and onwardand their mystery cults persisted well into the Principate of Roman Imperial era. The Bacchanalia were Roman festivals of Bacchus, the Greco-Roman Missile Crisis - Various - Chapter Twelve: Menace To Society E.P. of wine, freedom, intoxication and ecstasy.

They were based on the Greek Dionysia and the Dionysian mysteriesand probably arrived in Rome c. Like all mystery cults Veninna I Dalen - Espen Tarberg & Pelsjegerne - Gode Ry, the Bacchanalia were held in strict privacy, and initiates were bound to secrecy; what little is known of the cult and its rites derives from Greek and Roman literature, plays, statuary and paintings.

Livythe principal Roman literary source on the early Bacchanalia, as he reports a major political incident involving one form of the cult, names Paculla Anniaa Campanian priestess of Bacchus, as the founder of a private, unofficial Bacchanalia cult in Rome, based at the grove of Stimulawhere the western Bachus - Orgy of the Aventine Hill descends to Bachus - Orgy Tiber.

The Aventine was an ethnically mixed district, strongly identified with Rome's plebeian class and the ingress of new and foreign cults.

Livy claims the earliest version as open to women only, and held on three days of the year, in daylight; while in nearby Etruria, north of Rome, a "Greek of humble origin, versed in sacrifices and soothsaying" had established a nocturnal version, added wine and feasting to the mix, To My Mans - Keith Murray - Enigma thus acquired an enthusiastic following of women and men; [5] Bachus - Orgy says that Paculla Annia corrupted Rome's unofficial but morally acceptable Bacchic cult by introducing the Etruscan version, with five, always nocturnal cult meetings a month, open to all social classes, ages and sexes—starting with her own sons; the new celebrations and initiations featured wine-fueled violence and violent sexual promiscuity, in which the screams of the abused were drowned out by the din of drums and cymbals.

Those who resisted or betrayed the cult were disposed of. Under cover of religion, priests and acolytes broke civil, moral and religious laws with impunity. Livy also claims that while the cult held particular appeal to those of uneducated and fickle mind levitas animisuch as the young, plebeians, women and "men most like women", most of the city's population was involved, and even Rome's highest class was not Bachus - Orgy . Once investigations were complete, Bachus - Orgy senate rewarded and protected informants, and suppressed the cult "throughout Italy"—or rather, forced its reformation, in the course of which seven thousand persons were arrested, most of whom were executed.

Legislation of survives in the form of an inscription. Known as the Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibusit brought the Bacchanalia under control of the senate, and thus of the Roman pontifices. The existing cult chapters and colleges were dismantled. Congregations of mixed gender were permitted, but were limited to no more than two Lonsai Maïkov - Barddwedi and three Bachus - Orgy , and any Bacchanalia gathering must seek prior permission from the Senate.

Men were forbidden Bacchus' priesthood. Despite their official suppression, illicit Bacchanals persisted covertly for many years, particularly in Southern Italy, their likely place of origin. Similar attrition may have been imposed on Liber's cults; his perceived or actual association with the Bacchanalia may be the reason that his Liberalia ludi of 17 March were temporarily moved to Ceres' Cerealia of 12—19 April.

They were restored when the ferocity of reaction eased, but in approved, much modified form. Livy's account of the Bacchanalia has been described as "tendentious to say the least". For Livy, the cult's greatest offences arose from indiscriminate mixing of freeborn Romans of both sexes and all ages at night, a time when passions Bachus - Orgy easily aroused, especially given wine and unrestricted opportunity. Women at these gatherings, he says, outnumbered men; God The Father - Various - Imminent 4 his account has the consul Postumius stress the overwhelmingly female nature and organisation of the cult.

Yet the Senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus itself allows women to outnumber men, by three to two, at any permitted gathering; and it expressly forbids Bacchic priesthoods to men.

Livy's insistently negative account of the cult's Greek origins and low moral character—not even Bacchus is exempt from this judgment—may have sought to justify its suppression as a sudden "infiltration of too many Greek elements into Roman worship". Greek cults and Greek influences had been part of Rome's religious life since the 5th century BC, and Rome's acquisition of foreign cults—Greek or otherwise—through alliance, treaty, capture or conquest was a cornerstone of its foreign policy, and an essential feature of its eventual hegemony.

While the pace of such introductions had gathered rapidly during the 3rd century, contemporary evidence of the Bachus - Orgy reform betrays no anti-Greek or anti-foreign policy or sentiment.

Gruen interprets the Senatus consultum as a piece of realpolitika display of the Roman senate's authority to its Italian allies after the Second Punic War, and a reminder to any Roman politician, populist Bachus - Orgy would-be generalissimo that the Senate's collective authority trumped all personal ambition.

In modern usage, bacchanalia can mean any uninhibited or drunken revelry. The bacchanal in art describes any small group of revellers, often including satyrs and perhaps Bacchus or Silenus, usually in a landscape setting. The subject was Bachus - Orgy from the Renaissance onwards, and usually included a large degree of nudity among the figures. Bacchanalia - Rare print on vellum.

Nicolas PoussinBacchanal before a Statue of Pan- From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Lovis CorinthBacchanalia Modern scholarly sources offer various estimates on the number executed. A Companion to Roman Religion. Blackwell publishing. See Erich S. Hidden categories: Commons category link is on Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View John Lennon - Rock N Roll. In other projects Wikimedia Commons.

By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Marcus Aurelius head covered sacrificing at the Temple of Jupiter. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Bacchanals.


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