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Hypnagogiaalso referred to as "hypnagogic hallucinations", is the experience of the transitional state from wakefulness to sleep : the hypnagogic state of consciousnessduring the onset of sleep for the transitional state from sleep to wakefulness see hypnopompic. Mental phenomena that may occur during this "threshold consciousness" phase include hallucinationslucid thought, lucid dreamingand sleep paralysis. The latter two phenomena are themselves separate sleep conditions that are sometimes experienced during the hypnagogic state.
The word hypnagogia is sometimes used in a restricted sense to refer to the onset of sleep, and contrasted with hypnopompiaFrederic Myers 's term for waking up. In this article hypnagogia will be used in the broader sense, unless otherwise stated or implied.
Other terms Hypnagogia - Jason Short - Aural Therapy 1.1 Mixed By Jason Short hypnagogia, in one or both senses, that have been proposed include "presomnal" or "anthypnic sensations", "visions of half-sleep", "oneirogogic images" and "phantasmata",  "the borderland of sleep", "praedormitium",  "borderland state", "half-dream state", "pre-dream condition",  "sleep onset dreams",  "dreamlets",  and "wakefulness-sleep transition" WST.
Threshold consciousness commonly called "half-asleep" or "half-awake", or "mind awake body asleep" describes the same mental state of someone who is moving towards sleep or wakefulness, but has not yet completed the transition. Such transitions are usually brief, but can be extended by sleep disturbance or deliberate induction, for example during meditation. Transition to and from sleep may be attended by a wide variety of sensory experiences. These can occur in any modality, individually or combined, and range from the vague and barely perceptible to vivid hallucinations.
Among the more commonly reported,   and more thoroughly researched, sensory features of hypnagogia are phosphenes which can manifest as Hypnagogia - Jason Short - Aural Therapy 1.1 Mixed By Jason Short random speckles, lines or geometrical patterns, including form constantsor as figurative representational images.
They may be monochromatic or richly colored, still or moving, flat or three-dimensional offering an impression of perspective. Imagery representing movement through tunnels of light is also reported. Individual images are typically fleeting and given to very rapid changes. They are said to differ Hypnagogia - Jason Short - Aural Therapy 1.1 Mixed By Jason Short dreams proper in that hypnagogic imagery is usually static and lacking in narrative content,  although others understand the state rather as a gradual transition Puppet on a String - Various - Great British No.1s Volume 2 hypnagogia to fragmentary dreams,  i.
People who have spent a long time at some repetitive activity before sleep, in particular one that is new to them, may find that it dominates their imagery as they grow drowsya tendency dubbed the Tetris effect. This effect has even been observed in amnesiacs who otherwise have no memory of the original activity. The Tetris effect is not confined to visual imagery, but can manifest in other modalities. For example, Robert Stickgold recounts having experienced the touch of rocks while falling asleep after mountain climbing.
People who have spent considerable time jumping on a trampoline will find that they can feel the up-and-down motion before they go to sleep. Many chess players report [ citation needed ] the phenomenon of seeing the chess board and pieces during this state. New employees working stressful and demanding jobs often report feeling the experience of performing work-related tasks in this period before sleep. Hypnagogic hallucinations are often auditory or have an auditory component.
Like the visuals, hypnagogic sounds vary in intensity from faint impressions to loud noises, like knocking and crash and bangs exploding head syndrome. People may imagine their own name called, crumpling bags, white noise, or a doorbell ringing.
Snatches of imagined speech are common. While typically nonsensical Hypnagogia - Jason Short - Aural Therapy 1.1 Mixed By Jason Short fragmented, these speech events can occasionally strike the individual as apt comments on—or summations of—their thoughts at the time. They often contain word playneologisms and made-up names. Hypnagogic speech may manifest as the subject's own " inner voice ", or as Hypnagogia - Jason Short - Aural Therapy 1.1 Mixed By Jason Short voices of others: familiar people or strangers.
More rarely, poetry or music is heard. Gustatoryolfactory and thermal sensations in hypnagogia have all been reported, as well as tactile sensations including those kinds classed as paresthesia or formication.
Sometimes there is synesthesia ; many people report seeing a flash of light or some other visual image in response to a real sound.
Proprioceptive effects may be noticed, with numbness and changes in perceived body size and proportions,  feelings of floating or bobbing as if their bed were a boat, and out-of-body experiences. Thought processes on the edge of sleep tend to differ radically from those of ordinary wakefulness. For example, something that you agreed with in a state of hypnagogia may seem completely ridiculous to you in an awake state.
Hypnagogia may involve a "loosening of ego boundaries Subjects are more receptive in the hypnagogic state The Prodigy - Experience suggestion from an experimenter than at other times, and readily incorporate external stimuli into hypnagogic trains of thought and subsequent dreams.
This receptivity has a physiological parallel; EEG readings show elevated responsiveness to sound around the onset of sleep. Herbert Silberer described a process he called autosymbolismwhereby hypnagogic hallucinations seem to represent, without repression or censorship, whatever one is thinking at the time, Hypnagogia - Jason Short - Aural Therapy 1.1 Mixed By Jason Short abstract ideas into a concrete imagewhich may be perceived as an apt and succinct representation thereof.
A feature that hypnagogia shares with other stages of sleep is amnesia. But this is a selective forgetfulness, affecting the hippocampal memory system, which is responsible for episodic or autobiographical memoryrather than the neocortical memory system, responsible for semantic memory.
Hypnagogic phenomena may be interpreted as visionspropheciespremonitionsapparitions and inspiration artistic or divinedepending on the experiencers' beliefs and those of their culture. Physiological studies have tended to concentrate on hypnagogia in the strict sense of spontaneous sleep onset experiences. Marines, Lets Go - Rex Allen - Marines, Lets Go / Heartaches Of A Fool experiences are associated especially with stage 1 of NREM sleep but may also occur with pre-sleep alpha waves.
To identify more precisely the nature of the EEG state which accompanies imagery in the transition from wakefulness Hypnagogia - Jason Short - Aural Therapy 1.1 Mixed By Jason Short sleep, Hori et al. The "covert-rapid-eye-movement" hypothesis proposes that hidden elements of REM sleep emerge during the wakefulness-sleep transition stage. Respiratory pattern changes have also been noted in the hypnagogic state, in addition to a lowered rate of frontalis muscle activity.
Microsleep short episodes of immediate sleep onset may intrude into wakefulness at any time in the wakefulness-sleep cycle, due I Don`t Wanna Die - Psychoterror - Psychoterror sleep deprivation and other conditions,  resulting in impaired cognition and even amnesia.
In his book, Zen and the BrainJames H. Austin cites speculation that regular meditation Bernadette - J.T. Connection Featuring Dennis Tufano - Bernadette a specialized skill of "freezing the hypnagogic process at later and later stages" of the onset of sleep, initially in the alpha wave stage and later in theta. Early references to hypnagogia are to be found in the writings of AristotleIamblichusCardanoSimon Formanand Swedenborg.
The advent of electroencephalography EEG has supplemented the introspective methods of these Theme One - Kirchen*, Coleman* & Nathan* - Its About Time researchers with physiological data. The search for neural correlates for hypnagogic imagery began with Davis et al. While the dominance of the behaviorist paradigm led to a decline in research, especially in the English speaking world, the later twentieth century has seen a revival, with investigations of hypnagogia and related altered states of consciousness playing an important role in the emerging multidisciplinary study of consciousness.
The word hypnagogia entered the popular psychology literature through Dr. Andreas Mavromatis in his thesis,  while hypnagogic and hypnopompic were coined by others in the s and noted by Havelock Ellis. The term hypnagogic was originally coined by Alfred Maury   to name the state of consciousness during the onset of sleep. Hypnopompic was coined by Frederic Myers soon afterwards to denote the onset of wakefulness.
The term hypnagogia is used by Dr. Mavromatis to identify the study of the sleep-transitional consciousness states in general, and he employs hypnogogic toward sleep or hypnapompic from sleep for the purpose of identifying the specific experiences under study. Important reviews of the scientific literature have been made by Leaning,  Schacter Richardson and Mavromatis.
Self-observation spontaneous or systematic was the primary tool of the early researchers. Since the late 20th century, this has been joined by questionnaire surveys and experimental studies. All three methods have their disadvantages as well as points to recommend them. Naturally, amnesia contributes to the difficulty of studying hypnagogia, as does the typically fleeting nature of hypnagogic experiences.
These problems have been tackled by experimenters in a number of ways, including voluntary or induced interruptions,  sleep manipulation,  the use of techniques to "hover on the edge of sleep" thereby extending the duration of the hypnagogic state,  and training in the art of introspection to heighten the subject's powers of observation and attention.
Techniques for extending hypnagogia range from informal e. Another method is to induce a state said to be subjectively similar to sleep onset in a Ganzfeld setting, a form of sensory deprivation. But the assumption of identity between the two states may be unfounded. The average Ill String Along With You - Clifford Brown & Max Roach* - Joy Spring spectrum in Ganzfeld is more similar to that of the relaxed waking state than to that of sleep onset.
Perhaps a broader category of 'hypnagoid experience' should be considered, covering true hypnagogic imagery as well as subjectively similar imagery produced in other states. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State of consciousness in transition from wakefulness to sleep. This article is about the psychological state. For the musical genre, see Hypnagogic pop. It is not to be confused with daydreaming. Retrieved 15 August London: Longmans. Fortean Times. Retrieved 3 July Psychological Living Legends - The Donkeys - Television Anarchy. Brain Research Bulletin.
Topographical EEG changes and hypnagogic experience. In: Ogilvie, R. Sleep Onset: Normal and Abnormal Processespp. Sleep Research. International Journal of Psychophysiology. Out of Body Experiences. Hampton Roads Publishing Company, Inc. MindNew Series, Vol. Press, New York The American Journal of Psychology.
University of Illinois Press. Behavioral and Brain". Behavioral and Brain Sciences. A manual of standardized terminology, techniques and scoring system for sleep stages of human subjects. Government Printing. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Sleeping and waking: Physiology and psychology.
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