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The following is a list of banana cultivars and the groups into which they are classified. Almost all modern cultivated varieties cultivars of edible bananas and plantains are hybrids and polyploids of two wild, seeded banana species, Musa acuminata and Musa balbisiana. Cultivated bananas are L.D. - AAB* - Bright Dole always seedless parthenocarpic and hence sterile, so they are propagated vegetatively cloned.
They are classified into groups according to a genome-based system introduced by Ernest Cheesman, Norman Simmonds, and Ken Shepherd, which indicates the degree of genetic inheritance from the two wild parents and the number of chromosomes ploidy. Cultivars derived from Musa acuminata are more likely to L.D. - AAB* - Bright Dole used as dessert bananas, while those derived from Musa balbisiana and hybrids of the two are usually plantains or cooking bananas.
Banana plants were originally classified by Linnaeus into two species, which he called Musa paradisiaca — those used as cooking bananas plantainsand M. The primary center of diversity of cultivated bananas is Southeast L.D. - AAB* - Bright Dole . Botanical exploration of this area led to many more species being named, along with subspecies and varieties.
However, this approach proved inadequate to deal with the large number of cultivated varieties cultivars which were discovered, and many of the names later Oskyddad Verkstad - Diskonto - Diskontinued (Vinyl, Album) to be synonyms.
Inresearchers Norman Simmonds and Ken Shepherd proposed abandoning traditional Latin-based botanical names for cultivated bananas. Banana cultivars derived from M. The first is the number of chromosomes : whether the plant is diploidtriploid or tetraploid. The second is relationship to the two ancestral species, which may be determined by genetic analysis or by a scoring system devised by Simmonds and Shepherd.
A cultivar is scored on 15 characters, chosen because they differ between the two species. Each character is given a score between one and five according to whether it is typical of M. Thus the total score for a cultivar will range from 15 if all characters agree with M. Intermediate scores suggest mixed ancestry: for example, 45 would be expected for diploids with equal genetic contributions from both species.
Groups are then named using a combination of the letters "A" and "B". The number of letters shows the ploidy; the proportion of As and Bs the contributions of the ancestral species. A character score of around 35 is expected for members of this L.D. - AAB* - Bright Dole. Within groups, cultivars may be divided into subgroups and then given a cultivar name, e. In practice, the scoring system and the associated grouping is not as straightforward as the Simmonds and Shepherd naming system implies.
The cultivar 'Pelipita' is placed in the ABB group, so should have 11 of its 33 chromosomes derived from M. However, a technique called "genomic in situ hybridization" GISH showed that actually only 8 chromosomes were of this origin. Other lines of evidence suggest a more complex genome structure is present in other banana cultivars, so the group names should not be taken at face value.
The total number of cultivars of bananas and plantains has been estimated to be anything from around to more than Names are highly confused, even within a single country.
Many common names do not refer to a single cultivar or clone; for example 'Lady's Finger' or 'Lady Finger' has been used as the name for members of different genome groups, including AA and AAB.
Many other names are synonyms of cultivars grown in the same or different countries. InValmayor et al. They considered a further 81 cultivars to be unique to one country. As an example, for the widely grown cultivar 'Dwarf Cavendish', they gave 58 synonyms from 29 different countries or geographical areas.
A recent development is the use of "somaclones" in banana cultivation. Micropropagation involves growing plants from very small Baby Face - Eddie Peabody - Banjos Best of source tissue, sometimes even a single cell, under sterile conditions using artificial techniques to induce growth. The purpose of micropropagation is often to produce a large number of genetically identical offspring.
However, by inducing mutations through various means, it is possible to produce plants which differ slightly from the "parent" plant and from each other "somaclonal variations". By growing on these somaclones and selecting those with desirable features, new cultivars can be produced which are very similar to an existing cultivar, but differ in one or two features, such as disease resistance. Somaclones may only be distinguishable by genetic analysis.
Diploid Musa acuminataboth wild banana plants and cultivars. Triploid Musa acuminataboth wild banana plants and cultivars. Tetraploid Musa acuminataboth wild bananas and cultivars. This group contains the Plantain subgroup, composed of "true" plantains or African Plantains - whose centre of diversity is Central and West Africa, where a large number of cultivars were L.D. - AAB* - Bright Dole following the introduction of ancestral Plantains from Asia, possibly — years ago.
The Iholena and Maoli-Popo'ulu subgroups are referred to as Pacific plantains. Diploid Musa balbisianawild bananas. Cultivars of Musa lolodensisMusa maclayi Ouvertura I - Concerto Damour - The London Symphony Orchestra featuring Robert Groslot plays Will T Musa peekelii.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This list is incomplete ; you can help by expanding it. Archived from the original PDF on 8 January Retrieved 8 January Archived from the original on 8 January The University of Melbourne. Retrieved 23 July World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Retrieved 6 January Scripta Horticulturae. International Society of Horticultural Science.
Promusa, Bioversity International. Annals of Botany. In Elevitch, C. Retrieved 10 January Journal of Agricultural Science. Bioversity International. Bananas and plantains.
Category Production. Banana cultivars. Musa acuminataM. Kalamagol Pisang Awak. Musa section Callimusa. Karat Utin Iap. Breeds and cultivars. Lists of breeds Lists of cultivars. Culling Marker-assisted selection Natural selection balancing directional disruptive negative selective sweep stabilizing Selection methods in plant breeding Genotype Phenotype Dominance Codominance Epistasis Dwarfing Heterosis Outbreeding depression Inbreeding depression Recessive trait Sex linkage F1 hybrid.
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