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John Martin 19 July — 17 February  was an English Romantic painter, engraver and illustrator. He was celebrated Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine his typically vast and melodramatic paintings of religious subjects and fantastic compositions, populated with minute figures placed in imposing landscapes.
Martin's paintings, and the prints made from them, enjoyed great success with the general public—in Thomas Lawrence referred to him as "the most popular painter Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine his day"—but were lambasted by John Ruskin and other critics. Martin was born in Julyin a one-room cottage,  at Haydon Bridgenear Hexham in Northumberland, the fourth son of Fenwick Martin, a one-time fencing master.
He was apprenticed by his father to a coachbuilder in Newcastle upon Tyne to learn heraldic paintingbut owing to a dispute over wages the indentures were cancelled, and he was placed instead under Boniface Mussoan Italian artist, father of the enamel painter Charles Muss.
With his master, Martin moved from Newcastle to London inwhere he married at the Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine of nineteen, and supported himself by giving drawing lessons, and by painting in watercolours, and on china and glass—his only surviving painted plate is now in a private collection in England.
His leisure was occupied in the study of perspective and architecture. His brothers were Williamthe eldest, an inventor; Richard, by trade a tanner became a soldier in the Northumberland Fencibles inrising to the rank of Quartermaster Sergeant in the Grenadier Guards and fought in the Peninsular War and at Waterloo ; and Jonathana preacher tormented by madness who set fire to York Minster infor which he stood trial.
Martin began to supplement his income by painting sepia watercolours. He sent his first oil painting to the Royal Academy inbut it was not hung. In he sent the painting once again, when it was hung under the title A Landscape Composition as item no. Thereafter, he produced a succession of large exhibited oil paintings: some landscapes, but more usually grand biblical themes inspired by the Old Testament.
His landscapes have the ruggedness of the Northumberland crags, while some authors claim that his apocalyptic canvasses, such as The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrahshow his familiarity with the forges and ironworks of the Tyne Valley and display his intimate knowledge of Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine Old Testament. Martin's first break came at the end of a season at the Royal Academy, where his first major sublime canvas Sadak in Search of the Waters of Oblivion had been hung—and ignored.
He brought it home, only to find there a visiting card from William Manning MP, who wanted to buy it from him. Patronage propelled Martin's career.
This promising career was interrupted by the deaths of his father, mother, grandmother and young son in a single year. Another distraction was William, who frequently asked him to draw up plans for his inventions, and whom he always indulged with help and money.
But, heavily influenced by the works of John Miltonhe continued with his grand themes despite setbacks. In Martin finally achieved public acclaim with Joshua Commanding the Sun to Stand Still upon Gibeoneven though it broke many of the conventional rules of composition.
Martin's triumph was Belshazzar's Feastof which he boasted beforehand, "it shall make more noise than any picture ever did before It was later nearly ruined when the carriage in which it was being transported was struck by a train at a level crossing near Oswestry.
In private Martin was passionate, a devotee of chess—and, in common with his brothers, swordsmanship and javelin-throwing—and a devout Christian, believing in " natural religion ".
Despite an often cited singular instance of his hissing at the national anthem, he was courted by royalty and presented with several gold medals, one of them from the Russian Tsar Nicholas, on whom a visit to Wallsend colliery on Tyneside had made an unforgettable impression: "My God," he had cried, "it is like the mouth of Hell. Martin frequently had early morning visits from another Saxe-Coburg, Prince Albert, who would engage him in banter from his horse—Martin standing in the doorway still in his dressing gown—at seven o'clock in the morning.
Martin was defender of deism and natural religion, evolution before Charles Darwin and rationality. Georges Cuvier became an admirer of Martin's, and he increasingly enjoyed the company of scientists, artists and writers— Charles DickensMichael Faraday and J. Turner among them. Martin began to experiment with mezzotint technology, and as a result was commissioned to produce 24 engravings for a new edition of Paradise Lost —perhaps the definitive illustrations of Milton's masterpiece, of which copies now fetch many hundreds of pounds.
Politically his sympathies are not clear; some claim he was a radical, but this Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine not borne out by known facts, although he knew William Godwinthe ageing reformed revolutionist, husband of Mary Wollstonecraft and father of Mary Shelley ; and John Hunt, co-founder of The Examiner. At one time the Martins took under their wing a young woman called Jane Webbwho at twenty produced The Mummy! Here Comes The Party - Lostprophets - Here Comes The Party Plus experimented with telegraphy and invented the concertina and stereoscope; Martin was fascinated by his attempts to measure the speed of light.
Accounts of Martin's evening parties reveal an astonishing array of thinkers, eccentrics and social movers; one witness was a young John Tenniel —later the illustrator of Lewis Carroll 's work—who was heavily influenced by Martin and Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine a close friend of his children. At various points Martin's brothers were also among the guests, their eccentricities and conversation adding to the already exotic flavour of the fare. His profile was raised further in February when his Cry Out - The Answer - Everyday Demons brother, non-conformist Jonathan Martindeliberately set fire to York Minster.
The fire caused extensive damage and the scene was likened by Deck The Halls - The Ames Brothers - Therell Always Be A Christmas onlooker to Martin's work, oblivious to the fact that it had more to do with him than it initially seemed.
Jonathan Martin's defence at his trial was paid for with John Martin's money. Jonathan Martin, known as "Mad Martin", was ultimately found guilty but was spared the hangman's noose on the grounds of insanity. Martin from about to had turned away from Ça Gaze - William Schotte - Le Grand Biscornu, and became involved with many plans and inventions.
He developed a fascination with solving London's water and sewage problems, involving the creation of the Thames embankmentcontaining a central drainage system. His plans were visionary, and formed the basis for later engineers' designs. His plans for London's sewerage system anticipated by some 25 years the proposals of Joseph Bazalgette to create intercepting sewers complete with walkways along both banks of the River Thames.
He also made plans for railway schemes, including lines on both banks of the Thames. The plans, along with ideas for "laminating timber", lighthouses, and draining islands, all survive. Debt and family pressures, including the suicide of his nephew Jonathan's son Richard brought on depression which reached its worst in From Martin's fortunes recovered and he exhibited many works during the s.
During the last four years of his life Martin was engaged in a trilogy of large paintings of biblical subjects: The Last JudgmentThe Great Day of His Wrathand The Plains of Heavenof which two were bequeathed to Tate Britain inthe other having been acquired for the Tate some years earlier. They were completed injust before the stroke which paralysed his right side.
He was never to recover and died on 17 Februaryon the Isle of Man. He is buried in Kirk Braddan cemetery. Major exhibitions of his works are still mounted.
Martin enjoyed immense popularity and his influence survived. One of his followers was Thomas Colefounder of American landscape painting. Martin enjoyed a European reputation and influence. Heinrich Heine wrote of the music of Hector Berlioz that "It makes me see visions of fabulous empires and many a cloud-capped, impossible wonder. Its magical strains conjure up Babylon, the hanging gardens of Semiramis, the marvels of Nineveh, the mighty constructions of Mizraim, as we see them in the pictures of the English painter Martin.
Martin's work influenced the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood — especially Dante Gabriel Rossettiand several generations of movie-makers, from D. Griffithwho borrowed his Babylon from Martin, to Cecil B. DeMille and George Lucas. Wells were influenced by his concept of the sublime. The French Romantic movement, in both art and literature, was inspired by him. Much Victorian railway architecture was copied from his motifs, including his friend Brunel's Clifton Suspension Bridge.
A The Power Of Good-Bye (Luke Slaters Filtered Mix) - Madonna - The Power Of Good-Bye of Martin's engineering plans for London which included a circular connecting railway, though they failed to be built in his lifetime, came to fruition many years later.
This would have pleased him inordinately — he is known to have exclaimed to his son, Leopold, that he would rather have been an engineer than painter. Like some other popular artists, Martin fell victim to changes in fashion and public taste. His grandiose visions seemed theatrical and outmoded to the mid-Victorians, and after Martin died his works Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine neglected and gradually forgotten.
The RIBA holds many of his engineering pamphlets. There are letters in private collections and at Queen Mary College in London. John Martin wrote two autobiographies, the first an article in The Athenaeum of 14 Junepage and the most extensive in The Illustrated London News17 Marchpp. A major source for his life is a series of reminiscences by his son Leopold, published in Discopolis - Kris Menace - Idiosyncrasies parts in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle in There are a number of surviving letters and reminiscences by, among others, B.
The first full biography was that by Mary L. Pendered whose chief source, Martin's friend Sergeant Ralph Thomas, wrote a diary — now lost — of their friendship. Thomas Balston then wrote two biographies on the artist, the first inand the second still the leading biography in Christopher Johnstone produced an introductory book on Martinand in the art critic William Feaver was author of an extensively illustrated work on Martin's life and works.
SinceMichael J. Campbell has produced a number of publications on John Martin, including the leading publication on his work as an original printmaker, published by the Royal Academy of Arts, Madridin In —12 Tate Britain and Newcastle's Laing Art Gallery co-curated a major retrospective exhibition of Martin's work in all genres -"John Martin — Apocalypse" — including his contribution as a civil engineer.
Recorded as lost in the disastrous Tate Gallery flood ofthe painting was rediscovered by Christopher Johnstone, a Research Assistant at the gallery, when he was researching his book John Martin Its restoration by Tate conservator Sarah Maisey, reveals that the original paintwork was in near pristine condition; a large area of missing canvas has been repainted by Maisey using techniques that were not available in as she describes on page of the exhibition catalogue John Martin: Apocalypse Louis Art Museumwas hung in the Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine of the Royal Academy inand sold for fifty guineas.
The Plains of Heaven is thought by some to reflect his memories of the Allendale of his youth. Martin's large paintings were closely connected with contemporary dioramas or panoramas, popular entertainments in which large painted cloths were displayed, and animated by the skilful use of artificial light. Martin Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine often been claimed as a forerunner of the epic cinema, and there is no doubt that the pioneer director D.
Griffith was aware of his work. Another diorama of the same picture was staged in New York City in These dioramas were tremendous successes with their audiences, but wounded Martin's reputation in the serious art world. In addition to being a painter, John Martin was a mezzotint engraver. For significant periods of his life, he earned more from his engravings than his paintings. Before the first 24 engravings were completed he was paid a further guineas for a second set of 24 engravings on smaller plates.
Prowett issued 4 separate editions of the engravings in monthly instalments, the first appearing on 20 March and the last in Later, inspired by Prowett's venture, between and Martin published his own illustrations to accompany the Old Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine but the project was a serious drain on his resources and not very profitable. He sold his remaining stock to Charles Tilt who republished them in a folio album in and in a smaller format in Leopold was the godson of the future King Leopold I of Belgium, who had met and befriended Martin when they shared lodgings on Marylebone High Street in about Leopold later wrote a series of reminiscences of his father, published in the Newcastle Weekly Chronicle Supplement in Leopold accompanied his father on many walks and visits, and his anecdotes include encounters with J.
Leopold married the sister of John Tenniellater famous as the cartoonist of Punch and illustrator of Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Martin's eldest brother, William — was by turn a rope-maker, soldier, inventor, scientist, writer and lecturer, who attempted to develop a rival philosophy to "Newtonian" science, allowing for perpetual motion, and denying the law of gravity.
Despite undoubted elements Martin Held - Heiterer Heinrich Heine "quackery and buffoonery", William had a great talent for inventing.
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