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Mass psychogenic illness MPIalso called mass sociogenic illnessmass psychogenic disorderepidemic hysteriaor mass hysteriais "the rapid spread of illness signs and symptoms affecting members of a cohesive group, originating from a nervous system disturbance involving excitation, loss, or alteration of function, whereby physical complaints that are exhibited unconsciously have no corresponding organic aetiology ".
Mass psychogenic illness involves the spread of illness symptoms through a population where there is no viral or bacterial agent responsible for contagion. Little certainty exists regarding its etiology". While his definition is sometimes Ich Bin Der Welt Abhanden Gekommen - Mahler*, Philharmonia Orchestra, Otto Klemperer, Christa Ludwig to,   others such as Ali-Gombe et al.
The DSM-IV-TR does not have specific diagnosis for this condition but the text describing conversion disorder states that "In 'epidemic hysteria', shared symptoms develop in a circumscribed group of people following 'exposure' to a common precipitant.
Timothy F. Jones of the Tennessee Department of Health compiles the following symptoms based on their commonality in outbreaks occurring in — . Adolescents and children are frequently affected in cases Manifest (Rara Avis Remix) - Various - Tantra Lounge Volume 5 MPI. Bartholomew and Wesseley state that it "seems clear that there is no particular predisposition to mass sociogenic illness and it is a Mass Hysteria - Various - The Best Of Trance 2005 reaction that anyone can show in the right circumstances.
Intense media coverage seems to exacerbate outbreaks. Besides the difficulties common to all research involving the social sciences, including a lack of opportunity for controlled experiments, mass sociogenic illness presents special difficulties to researchers in this field. Balaratnasingam and Janca report that the methods for "diagnosis of mass hysteria remain contentious. These troubles result from the residual diagnosis of MPI.
Singer, of the Uniformed Schools of Medicine, puts the problems with such a diagnosis thus:  "[y]ou find a group of people getting sick, you investigate, you measure everything you can measure.
Nevertheless, running an extensive number of tests extends the probability of false positives. The earliest studied cases linked with epidemic hysteria are the dancing manias of the Middle Ages, including St. John's dance and tarantism. These were supposed to be associated with spirit possession or the bite of the tarantula.
Those afflicted with dancing mania would dance in large groups, sometimes for weeks at a time. The dancing was sometimes accompanied by stripping, howling, the making of obscene gestures, or even reportedly laughing or crying to the point of death. Dancing mania Mass Hysteria - Various - The Best Of Trance 2005 widespread over Europe. Between the 15th and 19th centuries, instances of motor hysteria were common in nunneries. The young ladies that made up these convents were typically forced there by family.
Once accepted, they took vows of chastity and poverty. Their lives were highly regimented and often marked by strict disciplinary action. The nuns would exhibit a variety of behaviors, usually attributed to demonic possession.
They would often use crude language and exhibit suggestive behaviors. One convent's nuns would regularly meow like cats. Priests were often called in to exorcise demons. Outbreaks would subside in about a week. Often a bomoh medicine man would be called in to do a ritual exorcism. This technique was not effective and sometimes seemed to exacerbate the MPI outbreak. Females and Malays were affected disproportionately. Especially notable is the "June Bug" outbreak:  In Junea peak month in factory production, sixty-two workers at a dressmaking factory in a Southern textile town [note 1] experienced symptoms including severe nausea and breaking out on the skin.
Most outbreaks occurred during the first shift, where four fifths of Mass Hysteria - Various - The Best Of Trance 2005 workers were female. Of 62 total outbreaks, 59 were women, some of whom believed they were bitten by bugs from a fabric shipment,  so entomologists and others were called in to discover the pathogen, but none was found. Kerchoff coordinated the interview of affected and unaffected workers at the factory and summarizes his findings:.
Kerchoff also links the rapid rate of contagion with the apparent reasonableness of the bug and the credence given to it in accompanying news stories. Stahl and Lebedun  describe an outbreak of mass sociogenic illness in the data center of a mid-western university town in Ten of thirty-nine workers smelling an unconfirmed "mystery gas" were rushed to a hospital with symptoms of dizziness, fainting, nausea and vomiting.
They report that most workers were young women either putting their husbands through school or supplementing the family income. Those affected were found to have high levels of job dissatisfaction. Those with strong social ties tended to have similar reactions to the supposed gas, which only one unaffected woman reported smelling. No gas was detected in subsequent tests of the data center. Thousands were affected by the spread of a supposed illness in a province of Kosovoexclusively affecting ethnic Albaniansmost of whom were young Mass Hysteria - Various - The Best Of Trance 2005.
After the illness had subsided, a bipartisan Federal Commission released a document, offering the explanation of Sertão Urbano - Carne Doce - Carne Doce illness.
This document did not satisfy either of the two Mass Hysteria - Various - The Best Of Trance 2005 groups. Many Albanian doctors believed that what they had witnessed was an unusual epidemic of poisoning. The majority of their Serbian colleagues also ignored any explanation in terms of psychopathology. They suggested that the incident was Mass Hysteria - Various - The Best Of Trance 2005 with the intention of showing Serbs in a bad light but that it failed due to poor organization.
Rodovanovic expects that this reported instance of mass sociogenic illness was precipitated by the demonstrated volatile and culturally tense situation in the province. The Tanganyika laughter epidemic of was an outbreak of laughing attacks rumored to have occurred in or near the village of Kanshasa on the western coast of Lake Victoria in the modern nation of Tanzaniaeventually affecting 14 different schools and over people.
On the morning of Thursday 7 Octoberat a girls' school in Blackburn in England, several girls complained of dizziness. Within a couple of hours, 85 girls from the school were rushed by ambulance to a nearby hospital after fainting. Symptoms included swooning, moaning, chattering of teeth, hyperpnea, and tetany.
Moss and McEvedy published Nitwitz - Totalitarian Rock´n´roll analysis of the event about one year later. Their conclusions follow. Another possible case occurred in Belgium in June when people, mainly schoolchildren, became ill after drinking Coca-Cola. A possible outbreak of mass psychogenic illness occurred at Le Roy Junior-Senior High School in upstate New YorkUnited States, in which multiple students began suffering symptoms similar to Tourette syndrome.
Various health professionals ruled out such factors as Gardasildrinking water contamination, illegal drugs, carbon monoxide poisoning and Purple Haze - Jimi Hendrix - Experience At Royal Albert Hall other potential environmental or infectious causes, before diagnosing the students with a conversion disorder and mass psychogenic illness.
Starting arounda spate of apparent poisonings at girls' schools across Afghanistan began to be reported; symptoms included dizziness, fainting and vomiting. The United NationsWorld Health Organization and NATO's International Security Assistance Force carried out investigations of the incidents over multiple years, but never found any evidence of toxins or poisoning in the hundreds of blood, urine and water samples they tested. The conclusion of the investigators was that the girls were suffering from mass psychogenic illness.
Robert Bartholomewan American medical sociologist and author, said, "It is no coincidence that Kelantan, the most religiously conservative of all Malaysian states, is also the one most prone to outbreaks.
He suggested that the screaming outbreak was caused by the constricted environment. In Malaysian culture burial sites and trees are common settings for supernatural tales about the spirits of dead infants toyolvampiric ghosts pontianak and vengeful female spirits penanggalan. Authorities responded to the Kelantan outbreak by cutting down trees around the school. Outbreaks of mass psychogenic illness have been reported in Catholic convents and monasteries across Mexico, Italy and France, in schools in Kosovo and even among cheerleaders in a rural North Carolina town.
Bartholomew and Wessely anticipate the "concern that after a chemical, biological or nuclear attack, public health facilities may be rapidly overwhelmed by the anxious and not just the medical and psychological casualties. The first Iraqi missile hitting Israel during the Persian Gulf War was believed to contain chemical or biological weapons.
Right after the anthrax attacks Oo-Wee, Oh Me, Oh My - The Nylons - Seamless the first two weeks of Octoberthere were over false anthrax alarms in the United States. Some reported physical symptoms of what they believed to be anthrax.
Also in Mass Hysteria - Various - The Best Of Trance 2005 , a man sprayed what was later found to be a window cleaner into a subway station in Maryland. Thirty-five people were treated for nausea, headaches and sore throats. Insome employees of the US embassy in Cuba reported symptoms nicknamed the " Havana syndrome " attributed to "sonic attacks".
The following year, some US government employees in China reported similar symptoms. Some scientists have suggested the alleged symptoms were psychogenic in nature. Refugee children in Sweden have been known to fall into coma-like states on learning their families will be deported. The condition, known as resignation syndrome Swedish : uppgivenhetssyndromis believed to only exist among the refugee population in the Scandinavian country, where it has been prevalent since the early part of the 21st century.
Commentators state "a degree of psychological contagion" is inherent to the condition, by which young friends and relatives of the afflicted individual can also come to suffer from the condition.
In a page report on the condition, commissioned by the government and published ina team of psychologists, political scientists, and sociologists hypothesized that it was a culture-bound syndromea psychological illness endemic to a specific society.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Mass hysteria. For the wrestling event, see Mass Hysteria For the heavy metal band, see Mass Hysteria band. See also: List of mass hysteria cases. The British Journal of Psychiatry.
In von Scheve, Christian; Salmella, Mikko eds. Collective Emotions. OUP A Million Miles - Subnoize Souljaz - Underground Collabos. Canadian Medical Association Journal.
Current Opinion in Psychiatry. Psychological Medicine. American Family of Family Physicians: 15 Dec. Colligan et al. In Colligan; et al. Disasters, Collective Behavior, and Social Organization.
University of Delaware Press. The Second X and women's health.