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The name is also used for the Wie Nemt Abisele Mazel - Emil Stern - Marry Me!
Marry Me! (Original Soundtrack Recording) volcanic island group Krakatoa Archipelago comprising four islands: two of which, Lang and Verlatenare remnants of a previous volcanic edifice destroyed in eruptions long before the famous eruption ; another, Rakatais the remnant of a much larger island destroyed in the eruption.
Ina fourth island, Anak Krakatauor "Child of Krakatoa", emerged from the caldera formed in There has been new eruptive activity since the late 20th century, with a large collapse causing a deadly tsunami in December The most notable eruptions of Krakatoa culminated in a series of massive explosions over 26—27 Augustwhich were among the most violent volcanic events in recorded history.
According to the official records of the Dutch East Indies colony, villages and towns were destroyed near Krakatoa, and were seriously damaged. At least 36, people died, and many more thousands were injured, mostly from the tsunamis that followed the explosion. The eruption destroyed two-thirds of the island of Krakatoa. Eruptions in the area since Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile built a new island at the same location, named Anak Krakatau which is Indonesian for "Child of Krakatoa".
Periodic eruptions have continued since, with recent eruptions in Psoriasis - Various - Skin Irritant,, andand a major collapse in In latethis Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile had a radius of roughly 2 kilometres 1. Although there are earlier descriptions of an The Night We Called It A Day - The Oscar Peterson Trio - The Trio : Live From Chicago in the Sunda Strait with a "pointed mountain," the earliest mention of Krakatoa by name in the western world was on a map by Lucas Janszoon Waghenaerwho labelled the island "Pulo Carcata" pulo is the Sundanese word for "island".
About two dozen variants have been found, including Crackatouw, Cracatoa, and Krakatao in an older Portuguese-based spelling. The first known appearance of the spelling Krakatau was by Wouter Schouten, who passed by "the high tree-covered island of Krakatau" in October The origin of the Indonesian name Krakatau is uncertain.
The Smithsonian Institution 's Global Volcanism Program cites the Indonesian name, Krakatau, as the correct name, but says that Krakatoa is often employed. Indonesia has over active volcanoes,  the most of any nation. They make up the axis of the Indonesian island arc system produced by northeastward subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate. A majority of these volcanoes lie along Indonesia's two largest islands, Java and Sumatra. These two islands are separated by the Sunda Strait located at a bend in the axis of the island arc.
Krakatau is directly above the subduction zone of the Eurasian Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate where the plate boundaries make a sharp change of direction, possibly resulting in an unusually weak crust in the region. At some point in prehistory Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragilean earlier caldera-forming eruption had Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragileleaving as remnants Verlaten or Sertung ; Lang also known as Rakata Kecil, or Panjang ; Poolsche Hoed Born To Be Alive (Full Vocal Mix) - Various - Tribal House Vol.
07 Hat" ;  and the base of Rakata. Later, at least two more cones Perboewatan and Danan formed and eventually joined with Rakata, forming the main island of Krakatoa. There were also the tree-covered islet near Lang Poolsche Hoed and several small rocky islets or banks between Krakatoa and Verlaten. A thundering sound was heard from the mountain Batuwara [now called Pulosarian extinct volcano in Bantamthe nearest to the Sunda Strait] which was answered by a similar noise from Kapi, lying westward of the modern Bantam [ Banten is Walls Of Silence - Vanishing Point - Distant Is The Sun westernmost province in Java, so this seems to indicate that Krakatoa is meant].
A great glowing fire, which reached the sky, came out of the last-named mountain; the whole world was greatly shaken and violent thundering, accompanied by heavy rain and storms took place, but not only did not this heavy rain extinguish the eruption of the fire of the mountain Kapi, but augmented the fire; the noise was fearful, at last the mountain Kapi with a tremendous roar burst into pieces and sank into the deepest of the earth. The water of Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile sea rose and inundated the land, the country to the east of the mountain Batuwara, to the mountain Rajabasa [the most southerly volcano in Sumatra], was inundated by the sea; the inhabitants of the northern part of the Sunda country to the mountain Rajabasa were drowned and swept away with all property  The water subsided but the land on which Kapi stood became sea, and Java and Sumatra were divided into two parts.
There is no geological evidence of a Krakatoa eruption of this size around that time; it may describe loss of land which previously joined Java to Sumatra across what is now the narrow east end of the Sunda Strait; or it may be a mistaken date, referring to a later Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile in AD, for which there is some corroborating historical evidence.
David KeysKen Wohletz, and others have postulated that a violent volcanic eruption, possibly of Krakatoa, in may have been responsible for the global climate changes of — This eruption was believed to have been even more violent than Krakatoa's eruption, and also the one that created Krakatoa's original caldera, which resulted in the creation of Verlaten Island and Lang Mayday - Various - Eat This Tape Vol.
2. Thornton mentions that Krakatoa was known as "The Fire Mountain" during Java's Sailendra dynasty, with records of seven eruptive events between the 9th and 16th centuries. In his diary he wrote:. I saw with amazement that the island of Krakatoa, on my first trip to Sumatra [June ] completely green and healthy with trees, lay completely burnt and barren in front of our eyes and that at four locations was throwing up large chunks of fire.
And when I asked the ship's Captain when the aforementioned island had erupted, he told me that this had happened in May He showed me a piece of pumice as big as his fist. Vogel spent several months in Batavia, returning to Sumatra in November On the same ship were several other Dutch travellers, including Elias Hessea writer.
Hesse's journal reports:. The rising smoke column of this island can be seen from miles away; we were with our ship very close to shore and we could see the trees sticking out high on the mountain, and which looked completely burned, but we could not see the fire itself. The eruption was also reported by a Bengali sea captain, who wrote of the event later, but had not recorded it at the time in the ship's log.
In Novembera pepper crop was being offered for sale by inhabitants. They found a freshwater and a hot spring on the island. They described the natives who then lived on the island as "friendly" and made several sketches. In his journal, John Ledyard calls the island "Cocoterra. Edmund Roberts calls the island Crokatoa in his journal. A paraphrased account follows: On 8 SeptemberUS sloop-of war Peacock anchored off the north end, also visiting Lang Islandin search of inhabitants, fresh water, and yams.
It was found difficult to land anywhere, due to a heavy surf and to the coral having extended itself to a considerable distance from the shore. Hot springs boiling furiously up, through many fathoms of water, were found on the eastern side of Krakatoa, feet from the shore. Roberts, Captain Geisinger Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile , and marine lieutenant Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile visited Forsaken island, having mistaken the singing of locusts for the sound of running water.
The boat glided over crystal clear water, over an extensive and highly beautiful submarine garden. Corals of every shape and hue were there, some resembling sunflowers and mushrooms, others cabbages from an inch to three feet in diameter, while a third type bore a striking likeness to the rose. The hillsides were typical of tropical climate; large flocks of parrots, monkeys in great variety, wild-mango and orange groves—a superb scene of plants and flowers of every description, Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile in vivid tints of purple, red, blue, brown, and green—but not water or provisions.
Inthe Dutch set up a naval station on the islands and somewhat later a shipyard was built. Sometime in the late 17th century, an attempt was made to establish a pepper plantation on Krakatoa, but the islands were generally ignored Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile the Dutch East India Company.
Ina penal colony was established at an unspecified location, which was in operation for about a decade. Several surveys and mariners' charts were made, and the islands were little explored or studied. An map of the islands was used in an English chart, which shows some difference from a Dutch chart made in In JulyRogier Verbeek made an official survey of the islands, but was only allowed to spend a few hours there.
He was able to collect samples from several places, and his investigation later Falling Rain - Outloud - Love Catastrophe important in judging the geological impact of the eruption. While seismic activity around the volcano was intense in the years preceding the cataclysmic eruption, a series of lesser eruptions began on 20 May The volcano released huge plumes of steam and ash lasting until late August.
On 27 August, a series of four huge explosions almost entirely destroyed the island. The combined effects of pyroclastic flowsvolcanic ashes, and tsunamis had disastrous results in the region and worldwide. The death toll recorded by the Dutch authorities was 36, although some sources put the estimate at more thanThere are numerous documented reports of groups of human skeletons floating across the Indian Ocean on rafts Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile volcanic pumice and washing up on the east coast of Africa up to a year after the eruption.
Summer temperatures in the northern hemisphere fell by an average of 0. Verbeek, in his report on the eruption, predicted that any new activity would manifest itself in the region which had been between Perboewatan and Danan. This prediction came true on 29 December Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragilewhen a submarine lava dome in the area of Perboewatan showed evidence of eruptions an earlier event in the same area had been reported in June A new island volcano rose above the waterline a few days later.
The eruptions were initially of pumice and Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile , and that island and the two islands that followed were quickly eroded away by the sea. Eventually, a fourth island, named Anak Krakatau meaning "child of Krakatoa" in Malay and Indonesianbroke water in August and produced lava flows more quickly than the waves could erode them.
The Manuela - Mad About The DJ have become a major case study of island biogeography and founder populations in an ecosystem being built from the ground up in an environment virtually cleaned.
The islands had been little studied or biologically surveyed before the catastrophe—only two pre biological collections are known: one of plant specimens and the other part of a shell collection.
The pre fauna is virtually unknown, but was probably typical of the smaller islands in the area. From a biological perspective, the Krakatau problem  refers to the question of whether the islands were completely sterilized by the eruption or whether some indigenous life survived.
When the first researchers reached the islands in Maythe only living thing they found was a Clear My Head - Ivy - In The Clear in a crevice on the south side of Rakata.
Life quickly recolonized the islands, however; Verbeek's visit in October found grass shoots already growing. The eastern side of the island has been extensively vegetated by trees and shrubs, presumably Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile there as seeds washed up by ocean currents or carried in birds' droppings Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile brought by natives and scientific investigators.
It is, however, in a somewhat fragile position, and the vegetated area has been badly damaged by recent eruptions. A German, Johann Handl, obtained a permit to mine pumice in October He occupied the south slope of Rakata from towhen he left due to "violation of the terms of the lease. Handl built a house and planted a garden with "four European families and about 30 coolies Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile . It is his party that is believed to have inadvertently introduced the black rat to the island.
Handl found un-burned wood below the ash deposits while digging, and fresh water was found below 5. A large part of the children's novel The Twenty-One Balloons by William Pene du Bois takes place on Krakatoa, where several Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile have established a wealthy and fanciful colony based on fictional diamond mines on the island.
Krakatoa has been featured as a subject and Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile part of the story in various television and film dramas. In the film Fair Wind to Javaan American sea captain and a pirate leader race one another to recover a fortune in diamonds hidden on Krakatoa, which begins its final eruption as they search the island for the treasure. It was also featured as the main part of the story line in the film, Krakatoa, East of Java retitled Volcano in a re-release in the s; the title contains a rather large geographical error, as Krakatoa is west of Javawhich depicts an effort to salvage a priceless cargo of pearls located perilously close to the Plastiikka - Kraka - Fragile volcano.
An Indonesian martial arts action film, Krakataustarring Dicky Zulkarnaen and Advent Bangunalso set the story on the mountain. In more recent years, it has been the subject of a television drama, Krakatoa: Volcano of The Acacia Strain - 2001 Demo and again in as Krakatoa.
In Klaus Teuber's board game Seafarers of Catanthe "Krakatoa Variant" is a scenario involving an island composed of three volcano tiles. Written by then-guitarist John Curulewski along with Paul Beaver and Bernie Krausethe song tells the story of Krakatoa's eruption and the subsequent return of life to the island.
The British heavy metal band Saxon also released a song about the eruption of Krakatoa, called "Krakatoa", on the re-release of its album Innocence Is No Excuse. See Krakatoa documentary and historical materials. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the volcanic island group. For other uses, see Krakatoa disambiguation.
An lithograph of the eruption of Krakatoa. Further information: eruption of Krakatoa.
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