Label: NHK - TR 144/1 - TR 144/2 • Series: Transcription Service • Format: 2x, Vinyl LP • Country: Japan • Genre: Folk, World, & Country • Style: Pacific
In contemporary Japanese writingforeign-language loanwords and foreign names are normally written in the katakana script, which is one component of the Japanese writing system. As far as possible, sounds in the source language are matched to the nearest sounds in the Japanese language, and the result is transcribed using standard katakana characters, each of which represents one syllable strictly mora. To accommodate various foreign-language sounds not present in Japanese, a system of extended katakana has also developed to augment standard katakana.
Katakana, like the other Japanese kana, hiraganahas a one-to-one correspondence between sounds and characters. Therefore, once the "Japanese sound" of a word is established, there is no ambiguity in its katakana spelling unlike spelling in English, for example. A much less common form of transcription, not covered in this article, uses kanji characters for their phonetic values. For information on this method see Ateji. Because Japanese is written with kanjithe relative complexity of its characters means Japanese generally needs to be written larger than in English for legibility.
Since Japanese characters encode one syllable at a time rather than one phoneme the amount of space taken tends to be the same, but challenges arise when Japanese encounters syllables and consonant clusters that the kana system isn't designed to handle.
Since Japanese has few closed syllables, syllable-final consonants in the source language are often represented using the -u or sometimes -o or -i kanas with implicitly silent vowels — though this vowel often is pronounced in Japanese — or the syllable coda is not represented at all.
Japanese has only five native vowel sounds, each a pure vowel monophthong with a long and short form, and some degree of approximation is necessary when representing vowels from, for example, English.
Japanese does not have separate l and r sounds, and l- is normally transcribed using the kana that are perceived as representing r. There are no definite rules when it comes to the schwa, however; e. On the other hand, the French schwa is transcribed to u or o e.
In long-established words, it is generally w. In newer transcriptions, it can also be v. Although several English dictionaries Oxford's, Cambridge's, Longman's, etc. French vowels are usually phonemically transcribed, but non-phonemic stressed vowels utterance-final are sometimes also transcribed as long vowels. The French schwa is ignored altogether: words are usually transcribed as if there were no schwa at Stitzenburg Breakdown - Stuart Wyrick - East Tennessee Sunrise. This is especially the case when the masculine and feminine of a word are distinct in French, e.
Plain short consonants may be transcribed as geminated consonants to reflect the laxness of the preceding vowel, although this is not universal and there are plenty of exceptions. German [x] is transcribed roughly as h-haccordingly to its Various - NHK Transcription Programme (No. 144) - Traditional Japanese Music - Nagauta - The Shamise vowel, if it's not followed by a vowel e.
Geminated consonants are typically transcribed consistently and faithfully, as gemination is also featured in Japanese. Modern English compounds are usually transcribed in a way that reflects the independent pronunciations of the individual components. That is to Everything Is Everything - Face To Face - Dont Turn Away, there is no phonetic linking between components.
There are two irregularities of note here. Firstly, lengthening of the final vowel may be ambiguous, and vary over time or between users.
Further, long vowels in the Japanese transcription need not reflect Chinese pronunciation. In modern times, an extended katakana system has developed to cater for foreign sounds not present in Japanese. Most of these novel katakana forms are digraphs Various - NHK Transcription Programme (No. 144) - Traditional Japanese Music - Nagauta - The Shamise, composed of standard katakana characters, but in digraph combinations not found in native words.
When it is assumed that the reader knows the separate gairaigo words in the phrase, the middle dot is omitted, especially for wasei eigo. The following tables In The Darkness - DJ Neophyte & DJ Panic - A Nightmare In Rotterdam - The Legend Returns the Hepburn romanization and an approximate IPA transcription for katakana as used in contemporary Japanese.
Their use in transcription is, of course, in the inverse direction. The following katakana tokushuon  have been developed or proposed specifically for the purposes of transcribing foreign words. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Japanese writing Components Kanji. Typographic symbols. Japanese punctuation Iteration mark. Furigana Okurigana Braille. The character woin practice normally pronounced ois preserved in only one use: as a particle.
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Kanbun Kanji by concept by stroke count Kanji radicals by frequency by stroke count Ryakuji. Pitch accent Rendaku Sound symbolism. Categories : Japanese writing system Transcription linguistics. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Articles containing Arabic-language text Articles containing Japanese-language text Wikipedia articles with colour accessibility problems Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February Namespaces Article Talk.
Syllabograms Furigana Okurigana Braille. Combinations used for more accurate transliteration of foreign sounds, again set forth by MEXT. Logograms Kanbun Kanji by concept by stroke count Kanji radicals by frequency by stroke count Ryakuji.
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